Basic Flutter layout concepts

Welcome to the Flutter layout codelab, where you learn how to build a Flutter UI without downloading and installing Flutter or Dart!

Flutter is different from other frameworks because its UI is built in code, not (for example) in an XML file or similar. Widgets are the basic building blocks of a Flutter UI. As you progress through this codelab, you’ll learn that almost everything in Flutter is a widget. A widget is an immutable object that describes a specific part of a UI. You’ll also learn that Flutter widgets are composable, meaning, that you can combine existing widgets to make more sophisticated widgets. At the end of this codelab, you’ll get to apply what you’ve learned into building a Flutter UI that displays a business card.

Estimated time to complete this codelab: 45-60 minutes.

Row and Column classes

Row and Column are classes that contain and lay out widgets. Widgets inside of a Row or Column are called children, and Row and Column are referred to as parents. Row lays out its widgets horizontally, and Column lays out its widgets vertically.

Example: Creating a Column

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      children: [
        BlueBox(),
        BlueBox(),
        BlueBox(),
      ],
    );
  }
}

class BlueBox extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      width: 50,
      height: 50,
      decoration: BoxDecoration(
        color: Colors.blue,
        border: Border.all(),
      ),
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final columns = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Column));

  if (columns.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['The Row contains three BlueBox widgets and lays them out horizontally.']);
    return;
  }

  if (columns.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${columns.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final column = columns.first as Column;

  if (column.children.length != 3 || column.children.any((w) => w is! BlueBox)) {
    _result(false, ['Row/Column should contain three children, all BlueBox widgets.']);
    return;
  }

  _result(true, ['The Column contains three BlueBox widgets and lays them out vertically.']);
}
{$ end test.dart $}

Axis size and alignment

So far, the BlueBox widgets have been squished together (either to the left or at the top of the UI Output). You can change how the BlueBox widgets are spaced out using the axis size and alignment properties.

mainAxisSize property

Row and Column occupy different main axes. A Row’s main axis is horizontal, and a Column’s main axis is vertical. The mainAxisSize property determines how much space a Row and Column can occupy on their main axes. The mainAxisSize property has two possible values:

MainAxisSize.max
Row and Column occupy all of the space on their main axes. If the combined width of their children is less than the total space on their main axes, their children are laid out with extra space.
MainAxisSize.min
Row and Column only occupy enough space on their main axes for their children. Their children are laid out without extra space and at the middle of their main axes.

Example: Modifying axis size

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      mainAxisSize: MainAxisSize.max,
      children: [
        BlueBox(),
        BlueBox(),
        BlueBox(),
      ],
    );
  }
}

class BlueBox extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      width: 50,
      height: 50,
      decoration: BoxDecoration(
        color: Colors.blue,
        border: Border.all(),
      ),
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();

  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });

  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;

  if (row.mainAxisSize != MainAxisSize.min) {
    _result(false, ['Row lays out the BlueBox widgets with extra space. Change MainAxisSize.max to MainAxisSize.min']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children.length != 3 || row.children.any((w) => w is! BlueBox)) {
    _result(false, ['There should only be three children, all BlueBox widgets.']);
    return;
  }

  _result(true, ['Row lays out the BlueBox widgets without extra space, and the BlueBox widgets are positioned at the middle of Row\'s main axis.']);
}
{$ end test.dart $}

mainAxisAlignment property

When mainAxisSize is set to MainAxisSize.max, Row and Column might lay out their children with extra space. The mainAxisAlignment property determines how Row and Column can position their children in that extra space. mainAxisAlignment has six possible values:

MainAxisAlignment.start
Positions children near the beginning of the main axis. (Left for Row, top for Column)
MainAxisAlignment.end
Positions children near the end of the main axis. (Right for Row, bottom for Column)
MainAxisAlignment.center
Positions children at the middle of the main axis.
MainAxisAlignment.spaceBetween
Divides the extra space evenly between children.
MainAxisAlignment.spaceEvenly
Divides the extra space evenly between children and before and after the children.
MainAxisAlignment.spaceAround
Similar to MainAxisAlignment.spaceEvenly, but reduces half of the space before the first child and after the last child to half of the width between the children.

Example: Modifying main axis alignment

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.start,
      children: [
        BlueBox(),
        BlueBox(),
        BlueBox(),
      ],
    );
  }
}

class BlueBox extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      width: 50,
      height: 50,
      decoration: BoxDecoration(
        color: Colors.blue,
        border: Border.all(),
      ),
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();

  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });

  await completer.future;
  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find a Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;

  if (row.mainAxisSize != MainAxisSize.max) {
    _result(false, ['It\'s best to leave the mainAxisSize set to MainAxisSize.max, so there\'s space for the alignments to take effect.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children.length != 3 || row.children.any((w) => w is! BlueBox)) {
    _result(false, ['The Row should have three children, all BlueBox widgets.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.start) {
    _result(false, ['MainAxisAlignment.start positions the BlueBox widgets on the left of the main axis. Change the value to MainAxisAlignment.end.']);
  } else if (row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.end) {
    _result(true, ['MainAxisAlignment.end positions the BlueBox widgets on the right of the main axis.']);
  } else if (row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.center) {
    _result(true, ['MainAxisAlignment.center positions the BlueBox widgets at the middle of the main axis.']);
  } else if (row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.spaceBetween) {
    _result(true, ['The extra space is divided between the BlueBox widgets.']);
  } else if (row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.spaceEvenly) {
    _result(true, ['The extra space is divided evenly between the BlueBox widgets and before and after them.']);
  } else if (row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.spaceAround) {
    _result(true, ['Similar to MainAxisAlignment.spaceEvenly, but reduces half of the space before the first BlueBox widget and after the last BlueBox widget to half of the width between the BlueBox widgets.']);
  }
}
{$ end test.dart $}

crossAxisAlignment property

The crossAxisAlignment property determines how Row and Column can position their children on their cross axes. A Row’s cross axis is vertical, and a Column’s cross axis is horizontal. The crossAxisAlignment property has five possible values:

CrossAxisAlignment.start
Positions children near the start of the cross axis. (Top for Row, Left for Column)
CrossAxisAlignment.end
Positions children near the end of the cross axis. (Bottom for Row, Right for Column)
CrossAxisAlignment.center
Positions children at the middle of the cross axis. (Middle for Row, Center for Column)
CrossAxisAlignment.stretch
Stretches children across the cross axis. (Top-to-bottom for Row, left-to-right for Column)
CrossAxisAlignment.baseline
Aligns children by their character baselines. (Text class only, and requires that the textBaseline property is set to TextBaseline.alphabetic. See the Text widget section for an example.)

Example: Modifying cross axis alignment

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.spaceAround,
      crossAxisAlignment: CrossAxisAlignment.center,
      children: [
        BlueBox(),
        BiggerBlueBox(),
        BlueBox(),
      ],
    );
  }
}

class BlueBox extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      width: 50,
      height: 50,
      decoration: BoxDecoration(
        color: Colors.blue,
        border: Border.all(),
      ),
    );
  }
}

class BiggerBlueBox extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      width: 50,
      height: 100,
      decoration: BoxDecoration(
        color: Colors.blue,
        border: Border.all(),
      ),
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find a Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;

  if (row.children.length != 3 || row.children.any((w) => w is! BlueBox && w is! BiggerBlueBox)) {
    _result(false, ['The Row should have three children, all BlueBox or BiggerBlueBox widgets.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.crossAxisAlignment == CrossAxisAlignment.start) {
    _result(true, ['The BlueBox and BiggerBlueBox widgets are positioned at the top of the cross axis.']);
  } else if (row.crossAxisAlignment == CrossAxisAlignment.end) {
    _result(true, ['The BlueBox and BiggerBlueBox widgets are positioned at the bottom of the cross axis']);
  } else if (row.crossAxisAlignment == CrossAxisAlignment.center) {
    _result(false, ['The widgets are positioned at the middle of the cross axis. Change CrossAxisAlignment.center to CrossAxisAlignment.start.']);
  } else if (row.crossAxisAlignment == CrossAxisAlignment.stretch) {
    _result(true, ['The BlueBox and BiggerBlueBox widgets are stretched across the cross axis. Change the Row to a Column, and run again.']);
  } else if(row.crossAxisAlignment == CrossAxisAlignment.baseline) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\t find a text class.']);
  }
}
{$ end test.dart $}

Flexible widget

As you’ve seen, the mainAxisAlignment and crossAxisAlignment properties determine how Row and Column position widgets along both axes. Row and Column first lay out widgets of a fixed size. Fixed size widgets are considered inflexible because they can’t resize themselves after they’ve been laid out.

The Flexible widget wraps a widget, so the widget becomes resizable. When the Flexible widget wraps a widget, the widget becomes the Flexible widget’s child and is considered flexible. After inflexible widgets are laid out, the widgets are resized according to their flex and fit properties.:

flex
Compares itself against other flex properties before determining what fraction of the total remaining space each Flexible widget receives.
fit
Determines whether a Flexible widget fills all of its extra space.

Example: Changing fit properties

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      children: [
        BlueBox(),
        Flexible(
          fit: FlexFit.loose,
          flex: 1,
          child: BlueBox(),
        ),
        Flexible(
          fit: FlexFit.loose,
          flex: 1,
          child: BlueBox(),
        ),
      ],
    );
  }
}

class BlueBox extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      width: 50,
      height: 50,
      decoration: BoxDecoration(
        color: Colors.blue,
        border: Border.all(),
      ),
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find a Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;

  if (row.mainAxisSize != MainAxisSize.max) {
    _result(false, ['It\'s best to leave the mainAxisSize set to MainAxisSize.max, so there\'s space for the alignments to take effect.']);
    return;
  }
  
  if (row.children.length != 3) {
    _result(false, ['The Row should have three children, all BlueBox or Flexible widgets.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[0] is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['Row\'s first child should be a BlueBox.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[1] is! Flexible) {
    _result(false, ['Row\'s second child should be a Flexible class.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[2] is! Flexible) {
    _result(false, ['Row\'s third child should be a Flexible class.']);
    return;
  }

  final flexibleWidget = row.children[2] as Flexible;
  
  if (flexibleWidget.child is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Flexible classes should have BlueBox widgets as their children.']);
    return;
  }

  if (flexibleWidget.fit != FlexFit.tight) {
    _result(false, ['The fit properties set the Flexible widgets to their preferred size. Change both fit values to FlexFit.tight.']);
    return;
  }

  _result(true, ['The Flexible widgets now occupy the space determined by their flex values.']);
}
{$ end test.dart $}

Example: Testing flex values

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      children: [
        BlueBox(),
        Flexible(
          fit: FlexFit.tight,
          flex: 1,
          child: BlueBox(),
        ),
        Flexible(
          fit: FlexFit.tight,
          flex: 1,
          child: BlueBox(),
        ),
      ],
    );
  }
}

class BlueBox extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      width: 50,
      height: 50,
      decoration: BoxDecoration(
        color: Colors.blue,
        border: Border.all(),
      ),
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find a Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;

  if (row.children.length != 3) {
    _result(false, ['The Row should have three children, all BlueBlox or Flexible widgets.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[0] is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s first child should be a BlueBox widget.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[1] is! Flexible) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s second child should be a Flexible widget.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[2] is! Flexible) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s third child should be a Flexible widget.']);
    return;
  }

  final flexibleWidget = row.children[1] as Flexible;
  
  if (flexibleWidget.child is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Flexible should have a BlueBox widget as its child.']);
    return;
  }

  if (flexibleWidget.flex != 1) {
    _result(false, ['Notice how the flex properties divide the extra space between the two Flexible widgets.']);
    return;
  }

  _result(true, ['Both Flexible widgets receive half of the total remaining space.']);
}
{$ end test.dart $}

Expanded widget

Similar to Flexible, the Expanded widget can wrap a widget and force the widget to fill extra space.

Example: Filling extra space

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      children: [
        BlueBox(),
        BlueBox(),
        BlueBox(),
      ],
    );
  }
}

class BlueBox extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      width: 50,
      height: 50,
      decoration: BoxDecoration(
        color: Colors.blue,
        border: Border.all(),
      ),
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find a Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;
  
  if (row.children.length != 3) {
    _result(false, ['The Row should have three children, all BlueBox widgets.']);
    return;
  }

   if (row.children[0] is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s first child should be a BlueBox widget.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[1] is! Expanded) {
    _result(false, ['Notice how Row contains extra space on its main axis. Wrap the second BlueBox widget in an Expanded widget.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[2] is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s third child should be a Flexible widget.']);
    return;
  }
  
  _result(true, ['Expanded forces second BlueBox widget to fill the extra space.']);
}
{$ end test.dart $}

SizedBox widget

The SizedBox widget can be used in one of two ways when creating exact dimensions. When SizedBox wraps a widget, it resizes the widget using the height and width properties. When it doesn’t wrap a widget, it uses the height and width properties to create empty space.

Example: Resizing a widget

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      mainAxisSize: MainAxisSize.max,
      children: [
        BlueBox(),
        SizedBox(
          width: 100,
          child: BlueBox(),
        ),
        BlueBox(),
      ],
    );
  }
}

class BlueBox extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      width: 50,
      height: 50,
      decoration: BoxDecoration(
        color: Colors.blue,
        border: Border.all(),
      ),
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find a Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;

  if (row.mainAxisSize != MainAxisSize.max) {
    _result(false, ['It\'s best to leave the mainAxisSize set to MainAxisSize.max, so there\'s space for the alignments to take effect.']);
    return;
  }
  
  
  if (row.children.length != 3) {
    _result(false, ['The Row should end up with three children.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[0] is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s first child should be a BlueBox widget.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[1] is! SizedBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s second child should be a SizedBox widget.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[2] is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s third child should be a BlueBox widget.']);
    return;
  }

  final sizedBox = row.children[1] as SizedBox;
  
  if (sizedBox.width != 100) {
    _result(false, ['The SizedBox should have a width of 100.']);
    return;
  }
  
  if (sizedBox.height != 100) {
    _result(false, ['The SizedBox widget resizes the BlueBox widget to 100 logical pixels wide. Add a height property inside SizedBox equal to 100 logical pixels.']);
    return;
  }
  
  _result(true, ['The SizedBox widget resizes the BlueBox widget to 100 logical pixels wide and tall.']);
}
{$ end test.dart $}

Example: Creating space

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      children: [
        BlueBox(),
        SizedBox(width: 50),
        BlueBox(),
        BlueBox(),
      ],
    );
  }
}

class BlueBox extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      width: 50,
      height: 50,
      decoration: BoxDecoration(
        color: Colors.blue,
        border: Border.all(),
      ),
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find a Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;

  if (row.mainAxisSize != MainAxisSize.max) {
    _result(false, ['It\'s best to leave the mainAxisSize set to MainAxisSize.max, so there\'s space for the alignments to take effect.']);
    return;
  }
  
  if (row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.spaceAround 
      || row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.spaceBetween 
      || row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.spaceEvenly) {
    _result(false, ['It\'s best to use MainAxisAlignment.start, MainAxisAlignment.end, or MainAxisAlignment.center to see how the SizedBox widgets work in a Row.']);
    return;
  }
  
  if (row.children.length != 5) {
    _result(false, ['The SizedBox widget creates space at 50 logical pixels wide. Add another SizedBox class between the second and third BlueBox widgets with a width property equal to 25 logical pixels.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[0] is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s first child should be a BlueBox widget.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[1] is! SizedBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s second child should be a SizedBox widget.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[2] is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s third child should be a BlueBox widget.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[3] is! SizedBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s fourth child should be a SizedBox widget.']);
    return;  
  }
  
   if (row.children[4] is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['The Row\'s fifth child should be a BlueBox widget.']);
    return;
  }
  
  final sizedBox = row.children[1] as SizedBox;
  
  if (sizedBox.width != 50) {
    _result(false, ['The SizedBox should have a width of 50.']);
    return;
  }
  
  final sizedBox2 = row.children[3] as SizedBox;
  
  if (sizedBox2.width != 25) {
    _result(false, ['SizedBox should have a width of 25.']);
    return;
  }
  
  _result(true, ['The SizedBox widgets create space between the BlueBox widgets, one space at 50 logical pixels and one at 25 logical pixels.']);
}
{$ end test.dart $}

Spacer widget

Similar to SizedBox, the Spacer widget also can create space between widgets.

Example: Creating more space

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      children: [
        BlueBox(),
        Spacer(flex: 1),
        BlueBox(),
        BlueBox(),
      ],
    );
  }
}

class BlueBox extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Container(
      width: 50,
      height: 50,
      decoration: BoxDecoration(
        color: Colors.blue,
        border: Border.all(),
      ),
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find a Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;

  if (row.mainAxisSize != MainAxisSize.max) {
    _result(false, ['It\'s best to leave the mainAxisSize set to MainAxisSize.max, so there\'s space for the alignments to take effect.']);
    return;
  }
  
  if (row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.spaceAround 
      || row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.spaceBetween 
      || row.mainAxisAlignment == MainAxisAlignment.spaceEvenly) {
    _result(false, ['It\'s best to use MainAxisAlignment.start, MainAxisAlignment.end, or MainAxisAlignment.center to see how the SizedBox widgets work in a Row.']);
    return;
  }
  
  if (row.children.length != 5) {
    _result(false, ['What do you think would happen if you added another Spacer widget with a flex value of 1 between the second and third BlueBox widgets?']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.children[0] is! BlueBox ||
     row.children[1] is! Spacer ||
     row.children[2] is! BlueBox ||
     row.children[3] is! Spacer ||
     row.children[4] is! BlueBox) {
    _result(false, ['Not quite. Row should contain five children in this order: BlueBox, Spacer, BlueBox, Spacer, BlueBox.']);
    return;
  }
  
    final spacer = row.children[3] as Spacer;
  
    if (spacer.flex != 1) {
    _result(false, ['The Spacer class should have a flex equal to 1.']);
    return;
  }
  
  _result(true, ['Both Spacer widgets create equal amounts of space between all three BlueBox widgets.']);
}
{$ end test.dart $}

Text widget

The Text widget displays text and can be configured for different fonts, sizes, and colors.

Example: Aligning text

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      crossAxisAlignment: CrossAxisAlignment.center,
      textBaseline: TextBaseline.alphabetic,
      children: [
        Text(
          'Hey!',
          style: TextStyle(
            fontSize: 30,
            fontFamily: 'Futura',
            color: Colors.blue,
          ),
        ),
        Text(
          'Hey!',
          style: TextStyle(
            fontSize: 50,
            fontFamily: 'Futura',
            color: Colors.green,
          ),
        ),
        Text(
          'Hey!',
          style: TextStyle(
            fontSize: 40,
            fontFamily: 'Futura',
            color: Colors.red,
          ),
        ),
      ],
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find a Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;

  if (row.mainAxisSize != MainAxisSize.max) {
    _result(false, ['It\'s best to leave the mainAxisSize set to MainAxisSize.max, so there\'s space for the alignments to take effect.']);
    return;
  }
  
  if (row.children.length != 3 || row.children.any((w) => w is! Text)) {
    _result(false, ['The Row should have three children, all Text widgets.']);
    return;
  }

  if (row.textBaseline == null) {
    _result(false, ['To use CrossAxisAlignment.baseline, you need to set the Row\'s textBaseline property.']);
    return;
  } 
  
  if (row.crossAxisAlignment != CrossAxisAlignment.baseline) {
    _result(false, ['The Text widgets are positioned at the middle of the cross axis. Change CrossAxisAlignment.center to CrossAxisAlignment.baseline.']);
		return;
  }  

  _result(true, ['The Text widgets are now aligned by their character baselines.']);
  
}
{$ end test.dart $}

Icon widget

The Icon widget displays a graphical symbol that represents an aspect of the UI. Flutter is preloaded with icon packages for Material and Cupertino applications.

Example: Creating an Icon

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      crossAxisAlignment: CrossAxisAlignment.center,
      textBaseline: TextBaseline.alphabetic,
      children: [
        Icon(
          Icons.widgets,
          size: 50,
          color: Colors.blue,
        ),
        Icon(
          Icons.widgets,
          size: 50,
          color: Colors.red,
        ),
      ],
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find a Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;

  if (row.mainAxisSize != MainAxisSize.max) {
    _result(false, ['It\'s best to leave the mainAxisSize set to MainAxisSize.max, so there\'s space for the alignments to       take effect.']);
    return;
  }
  
    if (row.children.length != 3 || row.children.any((w) => w is! Icon)) {
    _result(false, ['Row should have three children, all Icon widgets.']);
    return;
  }

    final icon = row.children[2] as Icon;
  
  if (icon.color != Colors.amber) {
    _result(false, ['Add a third Icon. Give the Icon a size of 50 and a color of Colors.amber.']);
    return;
  }
  
  _result(true, ['The code displays three Icons in blue, red, and amber.']);
  
}
{$ end test.dart $}

Image widget

The Image widget displays an image. You either can reference images using a URL, or you can include images inside your app package. Since DartPad can’t package an image, the following example uses an image from the network.

Example: Displaying an image

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Row(
      mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.center,
      children: [
        Image.network('[Place an image link here!]'),
      ],
    );
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Directionality(
      textDirection: TextDirection.ltr,
      child: Container(
        color: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        child: Center(
          child: Container(
            child: MyWidget(),
            color: Color(0xffcccccc),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  final rows = controller.widgetList(find.byType(Row));

  if (rows.length == 0) {
    _result(false, ['Couldn\'t find a Row!']);
    return;
  }

  if (rows.length > 1) {
    _result(false, ['Found ${rows.length} Rows, rather than just one.']);
    return;
  }

  final row = rows.first as Row;

  if (row.mainAxisSize != MainAxisSize.max) {
    _result(false, ['It\'s best to leave the mainAxisSize set to MainAxisSize.max, so there\'s space for the alignments to take effect.']);
    return;
  }
 
}
{$ end test.dart $}

Putting it all together

You’re almost at the end of this codelab. If you’d like to test your knowledge of the techniques that you’ve learned, why not apply those skills into building a Flutter UI that displays a business card!

Completed business card

You’ll break down Flutter’s layout into parts, which is how you’d create a Flutter UI in the real world.

In Part 1, you’ll implement a Column that contains the name and title. Then you’ll wrap the Column in a Row that contains the icon, which is positioned to the left of the name and title.

Completed business card

In Part 2, you’ll wrap the Row in a Column, so the code contains a Column within a Row within a Column. Then you’ll tweak the outermost Column’s layout, so it looks nice. Finally, you’ll add the contact information to the outermost Column’s list of children, so it’s displayed below the name, title, and icon.

Completed business card

In Part 3, you’ll finish building the business card display by adding four more icons, which are positioned below the contact information.

Completed business card

Part 1

Exercise: Create the name and title

{$ begin main.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    TODO('Begin implementing the Column here.');
  }
}
{$ end main.dart $}
{$ begin solution.dart $}
import 'dart:async';
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

class MyWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Column(
      mainAxisSize: MainAxisSize.min,
      crossAxisAlignment: CrossAxisAlignment.start,
      children: [
        Text(
          'Flutter McFlutter', 
          style: Theme.of(context).textTheme.headline5,
        ),
        Text('Experienced App Developer'),
      ],
    );
  }
}
{$ end solution.dart $}
{$ begin test.dart $}
class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      debugShowCheckedModeBanner: false,
      theme: ThemeData(
        scaffoldBackgroundColor: Color(0xffeeeeee),
        textTheme: TextTheme(
          bodyText2: TextStyle(
            fontSize: 16,
          ),
        ),
      ),
      home: Scaffold(
        body: Padding(
          padding: const EdgeInsets.all(16.0),
          child: Center(
            child: Container(
              decoration: BoxDecoration(
                color: Color(0xffffffff),
                border: Border.all(),
                boxShadow: [
                  BoxShadow(
                    blurRadius: 10,
                    color: Color(0x80000000),
                  ),
                ],
              ),
              padding: const EdgeInsets.all(8.0),
              child: MyWidget(),
            ),
          ),
        ),
      ),
    );
  }
}

Future<void> main() async {
  final completer = Completer<void>();
  
  runApp(MyApp());

  WidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized()
      .addPostFrameCallback((timestamp) async {
    completer.complete();
  });
  
  await completer.future;

  final controller = LiveWidgetController(WidgetsBinding.instance!);

  // Check MyWidget starts with one Column

  final myWidgetElement = controller.element(find.byType(MyWidget));

  final myWidgetChildElements = <Element>[];
  myWidgetElement.visitChildElements((e) => myWidgetChildElements.add(e));

  if (myWidgetChildElements.length != 1 ||
      myWidgetChildElements[0].widget is! Column) {
    _result(false, ['The root widget in MyWidget\'s build method should be a Column.']);
    return;
  }

  // Check Column has correct properties

  final innerColumnElement = myWidgetChildElements[0];
  final innerColumnWidget = innerColumnElement.widget as Column;

  if (innerColumnWidget.crossAxisAlignment != CrossAxisAlignment.start) {
    _result(false, ['The Column that contains the name and title should use CrossAxisAlignment.start as its CrossAxisAlignment value.']);
    return;
  }

  if (innerColumnWidget.mainAxisSize != MainAxisSize.min) {
    _result(false, ['The Column that contains the name and title should use MainAxisSize.min as its MainAxisSize value.']);
    return;
  }

  // Check inner Column has two Text children

  if (innerColumnWidget.children.any((w) => w is! Text)) {
    _result(false, ['The Column that contains the name and title should have two children, both Text widgets.']);
    return;
  }

  // Check first Text has headline style

  final nameText = innerColumnWidget.children[0] as Text;

  if (nameText.style?.fontSize != 24) {
    _result(false, ['The Text widget for the name should use the "headline5" textStyle.']);
    return;
  }

  _result(true);
}
{$ end test.dart $}

Exercise: Wrap the Column in a Row